A Spaniard had ceased to be human in their eyes. This, its opponents believed, was far too catholic in form, and based on the authority of bishops. The German Peasants' War of 1524/1525 was a popular revolt inspired by the teachings of the radical reformers. Some of the peasants’ demands were socioeconomic, but all derived from the belief that the whole of human society, rather than just theology and the church, ought to be remad… Followers of the Reformation were known as Protestants. Switzerland was to be divided into a patchwork of Protestant and Catholic cantons, with the Protestants tending to dominate the larger cities, and the Catholics the more rural areas. It was foiled when their plans were discovered. After years of bloodshed and war, the Peace of Westphalia would signal the end of the 30 Years' War. On March 1, however, a faction of the Guise family's retainers attacked an illegal Calvinist service in Wassy-sur-Blaise in Champagne. first two years of college and save thousands off your degree. The last straw was the installation of a Catholic reeve at Baden, and Zürich declared war on 8 June (First War of Kappel), occupied the Thurgau and the territories of the Abbey of St. Gall, and marched to Kappel at the border to Zug. Under this peace, the German states were given the right to make alliances with whomever they pleased. The Catholics were commanded by the Duke d'Anjou (later King Henry III) and assisted by troops from Spain, the Papal States and the Grand Duchy of Tuscany. While Philip wasted Farnese with ridiculous and useless battles against England and France, Spain had become spread too thin. 16 chapters | At the Battle of Jarnac (16 March 1569), the Prince de Condé was killed, forcing Admiral de Coligny to take command of the Protestant forces. On December 23, 1588, at the Château de Blois, Henry of Guise and his brother, the Cardinal de Guise, were lured into a trap and were murdered. The rebels went on to capture Newcastle upon Tyne, further weakening King Charles' authority. Later that same month Friesland, Gelderland, Groningen, Holland, Overijssel, Utrecht and Zeeland formed the United Provinces which became the Dutch Netherlands of today. Germany lost population and territory, and was henceforth further divided into hundreds of largely impotent semi-independent states. The wars listed were the most severe in casualties; the remaining religious conflicts in Europe lasted for only a few years, a year, or less and/or were much less violent. The city prepared to fight to the death rather than accept a Calvinist king. She therefore supported religious toleration in the shape of the Edict of Saint-Germain (January 1562), which allowed the Huguenots to worship publicly outside of towns and privately inside of them. Unlike his father, Ferdinand III wanted peace to be achieved. international rather than domestic). The troubles emerged as the result of several years of the escalating incidents between Catholics and Protestants in Northern Ireland. I'll do this simply because the Hapsburgs dominated the Holy Roman Empire at the onset of the war. Its members eventually intended the League to replace the Holy Roman Empire itself,[25] and each state was to provide 10,000 infantry and 2,000 cavalries for mutual defense. The Bourbons, with English support and led by Louis I de Bourbon, Prince de Condé, and Admiral Coligny, began to seize and garrison strategic towns along the Loire. Open war was avoided by means of a peace agreement (Erster Landfriede) that was not exactly favourable to the Catholic side, which had to dissolve its alliance with the Austrian Habsburgs. Luther started a movement among Christians who believed authority should not belong to clergy, but to the laypeople and their study of the Bible. In Denmark this increased royal revenues by 300%. This prompted intervention by Duke Maximilian of Bavaria on behalf of the Catholics. The victors confiscated almost all Irish Catholic-owned land in the wake of the conquest and distributed it to the Parliament's creditors, to the Parliamentary soldiers who served in Ireland, and to English people who had settled there before the war. The Reformation came to Britain and Ireland with King Henry VIII of England's breach with the Catholic Church in 1533. William, who raised another army after a series of earlier defeats, again battled the Spanish without a single victory. Merchants welcomed the "new" religion. Although there is no equivalent to the … His object was to crush the rebels without mercy on the basis that every concession strengthens the opposition. This is the same for the catholic league. Following the restoration of Catholicism under Queen Mary I of England in 1553, there was a brief unsuccessful Protestant rising in the south-east of England. In 1609, Scottish and English settlers, known as planters, were given land escheated from the native Irish in the Plantation of Ulster. This was a means of preserving absolute control over the Low Countries and it was an excellent vehicle to promote the spread of the Inquisition. King Charles I decided to send an expeditionary force to relieve the French Huguenots whom Royal French forces held besieged in La Rochelle. The 30 Years' War, which took place in the first half of the 17th century, is one of the most devastating wars in European history. Nevertheless, Protestant religions, especially Calvinism, seeped into the Low Countries during the early part of the 16th century due to the fact that it was a major center for trade. The siege of Drogheda and massacre of nearly 3,500 people[citation needed]—comprising around 2,700 Royalist soldiers and all the men in the town carrying arms, including civilians, prisoners, and Catholic priests—became one of the historical memories that has driven Irish-English and Catholic-Protestant strife during the last three centuries. The wars concluded in 1598 when Henry IV issued the Edict of Nantes, which granted a degree of religious toleration to Protestants. The Parliament of Paris instituted criminal charges against the King, who now joined forces with his cousin, Henry of Navarre, to war against the League. Christian, however, was forced to retire before the combined forces of Imperial generals Albrecht von Wallenstein and Tilly. By 1646 Charles had been forced to surrender himself to the Scots, and the parliamentary forces were in control of England. This provoked a further outbreak of hostilities (the Second War), which ended in another unsatisfactory truce, the Peace of Longjumeau (March 1568). This was Alva's downfall. Monck took Stirling on 14 August and Dundee on 1 September. succeed. They were financially supported by France and the money was poured into ships since Spain's control of the seas had been broken by England. The Netherlands and Switzerland were confirmed independent. One Count fed the Eucharistic wafers to his parrot in defiance. France's willingness to financially back Protestant Denmark signaled a shift in the 30 Years' War. On October 11, 1531, the Catholic cantons decisively defeated the forces of Zürich in the Second War of Kappel. The Imperial power retreated to Austria and the Habsburg lands. Surprisingly, the royal officials were not seriously injured. The prospect of taking over rich church properties and monastic lands had led nobles in many parts of Europe to support a "princely" Reformation. In 1529 under the lead of Huldrych Zwingli, the Protestant canton and city of Zürich had concluded with other Protestant cantons a defence alliance, the Christliches Burgrecht, which also included the cities of Konstanz and Strasbourg. [26] Huge damage was done to monasteries, churches and other religious institutions. Like many wars of its time period, the 30 Years' Warhad its root in politics and religion. The conflicts began with the minor Knights' Revolt (1522), followed by the larger German Peasants' War (1524–1525) in the Holy Roman Empire. France felt the Peace of Prague gave way too much power to the Hapsburgs. 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By the end of August disease and a shortage of supplies had reduced his army, and he had to order a retreat towards his base at Dunbar. The Empire was a fragmented collection of practically independent states with an elected Holy Roman Emperor as their titular ruler; after the 14th century, this position was usually held by a Habsburg. The original Protestant Reformer was Martin Luther. However, lacking a fleet, he was unable to take the Danish capital on the island of Zealand. Martin Luther rejected the demands of the insurgents and upheld the right of Germany's rulers to suppress the uprisings,[24] setting out his views in his polemic Against the Murderous, Thieving Hordes of Peasants. His army crushed the weak defenses of Zutphen and put nearly every man in town to death, hanging some by the feet while drowning 500 others. At this time there were only a limited number of Protestants among the general population, and these were mostly living in the towns of the South and the East of England. In 1572, rising tensions between local Catholics and Protestant forces attending the wedding of the Protestant Henry of Navarre, and the King's sister, Marguerite de Valois, culminated in the Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre. The war ended with the Treaty of Münster, a part of the wider Peace of Westphalia. [3] Scholars have pointed out that some European wars of this period were not caused by disputes occasioned by the Reformation, such as the Italian Wars (1494–1559, only involving Catholics)[note 1] and the Northern Seven Years' War (1563–1570, only involving Lutherans). The peace finally ended in the Schmalkaldic War (German: Schmalkaldischer Krieg), a brief conflict between 1546 and 1547 between the forces of Charles V and the princes of the Schmalkaldic League. Businessmen liked the role of the laity in Calvinist congregations. The Catholic cantons in response had formed an alliance with Ferdinand of Austria. However tax-raising authority for these wars was getting harder and harder to raise from parliament. Uit de diepte naar de hoogte", "France, Religious Wars, Catholic vs. Huguenot (1562–1598)", Rise of the Evangelical Church in Latin America, Persecution of pagans in the late Roman Empire, Decline of Buddhism in the Indian subcontinent, Muslim conquests in the Indian subcontinent, Persecution of Muslims during Ottoman contraction, Persecution of Christians in the Eastern Bloc, Jewish exodus from Arab and Muslim countries, Attacks by Islamic extremists in Bangladesh, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=European_wars_of_religion&oldid=992955289, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles needing additional references from February 2018, All articles needing additional references, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from July 2020, Articles needing additional references from June 2018, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from May 2018, Articles with disputed statements from May 2018, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2012, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2018, Articles needing additional references from January 2019, Articles with incomplete citations from March 2017, Articles with incomplete citations from February 2017, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2008, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2007, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2018, Pages using multiple image with auto scaled images, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, began as a religious war; quickly became a French-Habsburg political clash, began as a religious war, and largely remained such, civil, religion-state relation and religious freedom issues, with a national element, conflicts over religion (and taxes and privileges) evolved into a war of independence, mixed economic and religious reasons, war between peasants and Protestant/Catholic landowners. After numerous minor incidents and provocations from both sides, a Catholic priest was executed in the Thurgau in May 1528, and the Protestant pastor J. Keyser was burned at the stake in Schwyz in 1529. In 1524, King Christian II converted to Lutheranism and encouraged Lutheran preachers to enter Denmark despite the opposition of the Danish diet of 1524. For those of you who are unfamiliar with the Holy Roman Empire, it consisted of Central Europe. In the province of Ulster in the North of the country, Shane O'Neill's Rebellion occurred from 1558 to 1567, and in the South of the Country the Desmond Rebellions occurred in 1569–1573 and 1579–1583 in the province of Munster. The Empire also contained regional powers, such as Bavaria, the Electorate of Saxony, the Margraviate of Brandenburg, the Electorate of the Palatinate, the Landgraviate of Hesse, the Archbishopric of Trier, and Württemberg. This did little to promote allegiance to Spain. The first large-scale wave of violence was engendered by the more radical wing of the Reformation movement, whose adherents wished to extend the wholesale reform of the Church into a similarly wholesale reform of society in general. Ferdinand, having been educated by the Jesuits, was a staunch Catholic. No distinction was made between Catholic or Protestant. A vast number of minor independent duchies, free imperial cities, abbeys, bishoprics, and small lordships of sovereign families rounded out the Empire. The joint Royalist and Confederate forces under the Duke of Ormonde attempted to eliminate the Parliamentary army holding Dublin, but their opponents routed them at the Battle of Rathmines (2 August 1649). After losing his main support in Lübeck, Christoph quickly fell to defeat, finally losing his last stronghold of Copenhagen in 1536. Five hundred years after the Reformation, there are still painful divisions between Protestants and Catholics. Her son James VI was raised as a Protestant, later becoming King of England as well as Scotland. In general, the early part of the war went well for the Royalists. Under Charles’ reign, the Low Countries were subjected to the papal form of the Inquisition where laws were rarely enforced. The Queen of England sent her apologies as a matter of diplomatic courtesy while unofficially enjoying Spain's troubles. The reign of Queen Elizabeth 1st (“Good Queen Bess”, “England’s Golden Age”) cemented the country as solidly Protestant despite the machinations of Catholic Spain (spies, assassination attempts, the famous Spanish Armada, and other intrigues). Henry's army swept through Normandy, taking town after town throughout the winter. Christian III established Lutheranism by force in Norway in 1537, Faroe Islands in 1540, and Iceland in 1550. Religion: Catholic vs. Protestant. 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